The Effects of Music on Pain: A Meta-Analysis

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Numerous meta-analyses have been conducted on the topic of music and pain, but the latest comprehensive study was published a decade ago. Thus, a more up-to-date, comprehensive review is needed. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis in order to summarize existing research investigating the effect of music on pain. The present study included RCTs published between 1995 and 2014. Studies were obtained by searching 12 databases and hand-searching related journals and reference lists. Extra efforts were made to include unpublished grey literature. Considering all the possible benefits, music interventions may provide an effective complimentary approach for the relief of acute, procedural and cancer/chronic pain in the medical setting.